descended in the language of the Arabs and in accordance with their style of eloquence, and all of them understood it and knew its various meanings in its several parts and in their relation to one another. And it continued to descend, section by section and in groups of verses, in order to explain the doctrine of the Unity of God and religious obligations, according as circumstances required. Some of these verses consist of articles of faith, and some of them of commandments for the regulation of conduct." In another passage the same writer says, "All this 1 is a proof to thee that, amid the Divine Books, it was verily the Qur'an with which our Prophet (may God's blessings and His peace be upon him!) was inspired, in the form of something recited just as it is in its words and in its sections; whereas the Law and the Gospel on the other hand, and all the other Heavenly Books, were revealed to the Prophets in

جملاً وآيات آيات لبيان التوحيد والفروض الدينية بحسب الوقائع ومنها ما هو فى العقائد الأيمانية ومنها ما هو فى أحكام الجوارح (Arabic Text, vol. ii., p. 391.)
1 ويدلك هذا كله على أن القرآن من بين الكتب الإلهية إنما تلقاه نبينا صلوات الله وسلامه عليه متلواً كما هو بكلماته وتراكيبه بخلاف التوراة والإنجيل وغيرهما من الكتب السماوية فإن الأنبياء يتلقونها فى حال الوحى معانى ويعبرون عنها بعد رجوعهم إلى الحالة البشرية بكلامهم المعتاد لهم ولذلك لم يكن فيها إعجاز (Vol. i., pp. 171, 172.)

the form of ideas when they were in a state of ecstasy, and they explained them, after their return to man's ordinary condition, in their own customary language: and therefore there is nothing miraculous in them." That is to say, the 'Ulama of Islam, while acknowledging that other prophets came before Muhammad and brought Divine messages to man, yet hold that the inspiration of the Qur'an differs not only in degree but in kind from that to which other sacred books, as for instance the Law and the Gospel, are due. The writers of these books received certain ideas from God in some way but the language which they afterwards used to express these conceptions was their own, and cannot therefore claim any origin higher than the human. Muhammad, on the contrary, heard Gabriel reading aloud or reciting in a voice distinctly audible to him every single word of the Qur'an, according as it was inscribed on the "Preserved Tablet" in heaven. Arabic is held to be the language of heaven and of the angels, and hence in the Qur'an we have the very words, as well as the Word, of God Himself. Words, metaphors, reflections, narratives, style, all are wholly and entirely of Divine origin.

There can be no doubt that this view is in complete accordance with the statements of the Qur'an itself. The Divine original is styled "the Mother of the Book" (Surah XIII., Ar Ra'd, 39). Again and again in varied forms are such assertions