INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY AND
weighing a man's heart in one scale of the Balance
against the image of Maat, the goddess of Truth and
Right, which is placed in the other scale. Another god,
Thoth — in Egyptian Tehuti is writing down
the dead man's account on a scroll. Over the Balance
is written "The Osiris lives justified. In its
place the Balance is level in the midst of the Divine
Judgment-Hall. He says, ‘As for his heart, let his heart
enter into its place in Osiris so and so the
Justified.’ May Thoth, the great god in the city of
Heseret, lord of the city Hermopolis, lord of the words
of Thoth, say this." The bestowal of the name of
Osiris on the dead man as well as his own name
(for the insertion of which a place is left vacant)
signifies that, being justified in the judgment, he
has become identified with the god Osiris, the supreme
deity of the ancient Egyptians, and is therefore safe
from the assaults of the evil powers.
In front of the figure of the divine scribe Thoth
stands a terrible animal, something like a bitch. This
was supposed to devour the wicked. Over its head is
written, "Conqueror of enemies by swallowing them,
lady of Hades, hound of Hades." Near this animal
there stands an altar full of offerings, placed in front
of the entrance to the inner shrine. Within the shrine,
seated on a throne, is Osiris himself, the "Good
Being," holding in one hand a sceptre and in the
other a scourge. He sits as judge, prepared to deal
with the dead man's spirit
according to what Thoth may write in the roll regarding
the result of weighing his heart in the Balance. In
front of Osiris is an inscription containing some of
his titles. It may be read thus: "Osiris, the Good
Being, God, Lord of Life, the great God, Lord of futurity,
Chief of Paradise and Hell, in Hades, the great God,
Lord of the city of Abt, king of past eternity, God."
Beneath his throne the words "Life and Health"
are written several times.
It is evident from a comparison of this picture with
what we have read in the "Testament of Abraham"
and in the Qur'an that the "Balance" mentioned
in the Qur'an and the Traditions of Muhammad is ultimately
derived from the ancient Egyptian mythology, through
the medium of Coptic Christian ideas
which are mentioned in the "Testament of Abraham,"
having been handed down orally during generation after
generation in Egypt, the land of their birth.