weighing a man's heart in one scale of the Balance against the image of Maat, the goddess of Truth and Right, which is placed in the other scale. Another god, Thoth — in Egyptian Tehuti is writing down the dead man's account on a scroll. Over the Balance is written "The Osiris lives justified. In its place the Balance is level in the midst of the Divine Judgment-Hall. He says, ‘As for his heart, let his heart enter into its place in Osiris so and so the Justified.’ May Thoth, the great god in the city of Heseret, lord of the city Hermopolis, lord of the words of Thoth, say this." The bestowal of the name of Osiris on the dead man as well as his own name (for the insertion of which a place is left vacant) signifies that, being justified in the judgment, he has become identified with the god Osiris, the supreme deity of the ancient Egyptians, and is therefore safe from the assaults of the evil powers.

In front of the figure of the divine scribe Thoth stands a terrible animal, something like a bitch. This was supposed to devour the wicked. Over its head is written, "Conqueror of enemies by swallowing them, lady of Hades, hound of Hades." Near this animal there stands an altar full of offerings, placed in front of the entrance to the inner shrine. Within the shrine, seated on a throne, is Osiris himself, the "Good Being," holding in one hand a sceptre and in the other a scourge. He sits as judge, prepared to deal with the dead man's spirit


according to what Thoth may write in the roll regarding the result of weighing his heart in the Balance. In front of Osiris is an inscription containing some of his titles. It may be read thus: "Osiris, the Good Being, God, Lord of Life, the great God, Lord of futurity, Chief of Paradise and Hell, in Hades, the great God, Lord of the city of Abt, king of past eternity, God." Beneath his throne the words "Life and Health" are written several times.

It is evident from a comparison of this picture with what we have read in the "Testament of Abraham" and in the Qur'an that the "Balance" mentioned in the Qur'an and the Traditions of Muhammad is ultimately derived from the ancient Egyptian mythology, through the medium of Coptic Christian ideas 1 which are mentioned in the "Testament of Abraham," having been handed down orally during generation after generation in Egypt, the land of their birth.

1 In Zoroastrian mythology also the Balance appears in a manner very similar to its use in Egyptian. Rashnu, one of the three judges of the dead (cf. the Greek story of the same duty assigned to Minos, Rhadamanthus and Aeacus, in Plato's Gorgias, cap. lxxix) holds a Balance, and in it men's good deeds and bad are weighed after their death. The other judges are Mithra and Sraosha, the Mihr and Sarosh of later Persian legends. In the Middle Ages in Europe Michael was supposed to hold the Balance.