Adhar is the angel who presides over fire. Sarosh is the angel of obedience, and is one of the "Eternal Holy Ones" (Amesha-spentas later Amshaspands) or archangels of the Zoroastrian faith. He guides Arta Viraf through the different heavens, just as Gabriel does Muhammad.

The narrative goes on to relate how Arta Viraf reached the Storey of the Moon, or the second, and then the Storey of the Sun, which is the third of the celestial mansions. In the same way he was led on and on through every one of the heavens, until he was introduced into Ormazd's presence, and had the interview which is detailed in cap. xi in these words:—

"And finally up rose from his throne overlaid with gold the archangel Bahman: and he took my hand and brought me to Humat and Hukht and Hurast 1, amid Ormazd and the archangels and the other holy ones and the Essence of Zoroaster the pure-minded ... and the other faithful ones and chiefs of the faith, than whom I have never seen anything brighter and better. And Bahman [said], ‘This is Ormazd.’ And I wished to offer a salutation before Him. And he said to me, ‘Salutation to thee, O Arta Viraf! Welcome! Thou hast come from that perishable world to this

1 Three courts or Paradise, called in the Avesta Humata ("good thought"), Hukhta ("good word") and Hvarsta ("good deed"). They correspond to the Star Court (Storey of the Stars), Moon Court, and Sun Court respectively.

undefiled bright place.’ And he commanded holy Sarosh and the angel Adhar, ‘'Carry off Arta Viraf and show him the throne and the reward of the holy ones and also the punishment of the wicked.’ And finally holy Sarosh and the angel Adhar took my hand, and I was carried forward by them from place to place and I have seen those archangels and I have seen the other angels."

We are then told at considerable length how Arta Viraf visited Paradise and hell, and what he saw in each. After his visit to hell the tale goes on:—

"At 1 last holy Sarosh and the angel Adhar took my hand and brought me forth from that dark, dreadful and terrible place, and they bore me to that place of brightness and the assembly of Ormazd and the archangels. Then I wished to offer a salutation before Ormazd. And He was kind. He said, ‘O faithful servant, holy Arta Viraf, apostle of the worshippers of Ormazd, go thou to the material world, speak with truth to the creatures, according as thou hast seen and known, since I, who am Ormazd, am here. Whosoever speaks rightly and truly, I hear and know. Speak thou to the wise ones.’ And when Ormazd spake thus, I remained astounded, for I saw a light and did not see a body, and I heard a voice, I knew that ‘this is Ormazd.’"

It is unnecessary to point out how great is the

1 Cap. ci.