knowledge 1 and the desire of inflicting injury, and in the abyss. ... And that injuriousness and that darkness too are a place which they call the dark region. Ormazd in his omniscience knew that Ahriman existed, because he" — that is, Ahriman — "excites himself and intermingles himself with the desire of envy even unto the end. ... They" (Ormazd and Ahriman) "were for three thousand years in spirit, that is, they were without change and motion. ... The injurious spirit, on account of his after- knowledge, was not aware of the existence of Ormazd. At last he rises from that abyss, and he came to the bright place; and, since he saw that brightness of Ormazd, ... because of his injurious desire and his envious disposition he became busied in destroying."

We necessarily find a certain difference in form between the legend as it arose among the dualistic Zoroastrians and the aspect it assumed among the Monotheistic Muslims. Hence in the former the Evil Principle is not a creature of Ormazd, and does not at first know of His existence, whereas in the latter he is, of course, one of the creatures of God. In the Muhammadan legend he gradually ascends higher and higher by his piety, while in the Zoroastrian account piety can have nothing

1 That is, Ahriman does not know the future but only the past. His after-knowledge is the επιμηθεια of the Greeks (Prometheus contrasted with Epimetheus), and Ormazd ultimately vanquishes him because the latter alone has foreknowledge.

to do with the matter. But in both cases the Evil Spirit at first dwells in darkness and ignorance and comes up to the light, and in both cases he sets himself to work to destroy God's creatures through envy and ill-will. The twelve thousand years during which, according to Zoroastrian ideas, the contest between good and evil goes on is divided into four periods of three thousand years each. A reference to this is probably to be found in the three thousand years during which, as we have seen, 'Azazil (Iblis) lies in wait for Adam's destruction.

Before leaving this subject it may be of interest to point out that the Peacock has some connexion with the Evil Spirit both in the Muhammadan and in the Zoroastrian legend. In the Qisasu'l Anbiya we are told that when Iblis was seated in ambush before the gate of Paradise, watching for an opportunity to enter and tempt Adam and Eve to sin, the Peacock was sitting on the wall, on top of one of the battlements, and saw him most piously engaged in repeating the loftiest names of God Most High. Struck with admiration for so much piety, the Peacock inquired who this ardent devotee might be. Iblis replied, "I am one of the angels of God; may He be honoured and glorified!" When asked why he sat there, he replied, "I am looking at Paradise, and I wish to enter it." The Peacock was acting as watchman, so he replied, "I have no orders to admit any one to Paradise while Adam is in it." But Iblis bribed him to