the Qur'an repeatedly 1, though indirectly 2, speaks of Abraham as a Hanif, the chosen title of Zaid and his friends.

The root from which this word Hanif is derived means in Hebrew "to conceal, to pretend, to lie, to be a hypocrite," and in Syriac its meanings are similar. In Arabic it seems to have first denoted "limping," or "walking unevenly," but came to signify impiety in abandoning the worship of the popular deities. In this sense it was doubtless at first applied to the reformers as a reproach. But since, as Ibn Hisham tells us 3, in the pronunciation of the Quraish the word denoting "penance" and "purity" was confounded with the term denoting "Hanifism," it is probable that the Hanifs gladly adopted the name as expressing their abjuration of idolatry with all its abominations. It is none the less remarkable, however, that Muhammad should have ventured to apply the term to Abraham, and to invite men to become Hanifs by returning to the "Religion of Abraham," which he identified with Islam as proclaimed by himself. In fact, by this use of the word, Muhammad in the clearest possible manner declared his adhesion to the doctrines of the reformers. When in addition to this we find him adopting their teaching and incor-

1 e. g. Surahs III., 89; IV., 124; VI., 162.
2 Arabic scholars will see in what the indirectness consists. Perhaps there is no real reason to say 'indirectly,' the language is so nearly direct.
3 Above, p. 269, note 2.

porating it into the Qur'an, we cannot hesitate to recognize the dogmas of the Hanifs as forming one of the main Sources of Islam.

That the Hanifs should have exercised such an influence upon nascent Islam was very natural for family reasons also. All the four leading reformers at Mecca were related to Muhammad, being descended from a common ancestor Liwa'. Moreover, 'Ubaidu'llah was a son of a maternal aunt of Muhammad, and the latter married this reformer's widow, as we have already seen. Two others, Waraqah and 'Uthman, were cousins of his first wife Khadijah, as we learn from the genealogies given by Ibn Hisham 1.

One objection may possibly occur to the reader who has patiently followed us so far in our investigations into the origin of Islam. He may perhaps say, "All this is very similar to the play of Hamlet with the part of the Prince of Denmark left out. You have shown that the whole of Islam has been borrowed from previously existent systems, and have therefore left nothing which can properly be attributed to Muhammad himself. Is it not strange to find Muhammadanism without a Muhammad?" The answer to this objection is not far to seek. The creed of Islam, to-day as in the past, shows what a very important part Muhammad plays in

1 Siratu'r Rasul, pp. 63, 76, &c.