cerned seriously to discuss the question of the occurrence of this "Night Journey," we need not deal further with this view. It is certain that the great mass of Muhammadan commentators and Traditionalists believe that Muhammad actually went from Mecca to Jerusalem and also visited the heavens, and they give long accounts, of deep and abiding interest to Muslims, regarding what he did and what he saw. It is with this Tradition that we have to deal, and we shall see that it is easy to trace the origin of its main features to earlier legends, and especially to Zoroastrian sources. This is true, whether we believe with the vast mass of Muhammadans that Muhammad himself gave such an account of his Miraj as the ones we now proceed to translate, or infer that the whole legend is the production of somewhat later times 1. We quote Ibn Ishaq's

إلى المسجد الأقصى الذى هو مقام الروح إلا بعد من العالم الجسمانى بشهود تجليات الذات وسبحات الوجه وتذكر ما ذكرنا أن تصحيح كل مقام لا يكون إلا بعد الترقى إلى ما فوقه لتفهم من قوله " لنريه من آياتنا مشاهدة الصفات فإن مطالعة تجليات الصفات وإن كانت فى مقام القلب لكن الذات الموصوفة بتلك الصفات لا تشاهد على الكمال بصفة الجلال إلا عند الترقى إلى مقام الروح أى لنريه آيات صفاتنا من جهة أنها منسوبة إلينا ونحن المشاهدون بها البارزون بصورها "
1 Against this latter hypothesis, however, must be considered

account first, because it is the earliest that has reached us. It is given by Ibn Hisham, his editor and continuator, in the following manner. Muhammad, we are informed, asserted that Gabriel came and awoke him twice to go on the "Night Journey," but he fell asleep again. Then he continues:—

"Accordingly he (Gabriel) came to me the third time: then he touched me with his foot, and I sat up. He seized me by my arm, and I stood up with him. He then sent forth to the door of the Mosque: and lo! a white animal, (in appearance) between a mule and an ass; on its flanks were two wings, with which it rules both its hind feet: its fore-foot it sets down at the limit of its glance. He mounted me upon it, then he went forth with me, (in such a way that) he does not precede me and I do not precede him When. I approached it (the animal) to mount it, it reared. Accordingly Gabriel placed his hand upon its mane: then he said, ‘O Buraq, art thou not ashamed of what thou

the fact that in Surah LIII., An Najm, 13-18, Muhammad clearly asserts that he saw the Sidratu'l Muntaha', which stands in the highest heaven. These verses must refer to this Miraj, and may be thus rendered:—

"And indeed he (Muhammad) saw him (Gabriel) another time
At the Sidratu'l Muntaha',
Near it is the Paradise or the Habitation,
When what covered the Lotus tree covered it:
The gaze (of Muhammad) glanced not aside nor wandered.
Indeed he saw some of the great signs of his Lord."