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Islam: The Complete Way of Life?


As understood by Muslims, the life and sayings of Muhammad are the final revelation of Allah's will for human conduct. For them, Muhammad is the perfect revealed standard for all human activity, and Muslims believe that Islam to be the only complete Way of Life. The table below seeks to capture this concept by showing that all aspects of a Muslim's life are subsumed under the authority of Muhammad's sayings and behavior. First, Table 1 is titled, Muhammad: Human Rights and Duties, to indicate that, according to Islam, Muhammad has defined all human rights and duties. Second, because Muslims believe that no one has knowledge of Allah's will apart from Muhammad's Sunnah and Qur'an, Muhammad (dark-green bar) comes between Allah (dark-blue bar) and the list of the Human Rights and Duties. This illustrates that Allah and his will are unknown except through Muhammad and his revelations. The Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights states too that all human rights and duties are based on Qur'an and Sunnah of Muhammad.  In brief, Muslims believe Muhammad is the Complete Way of Life.  

The Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights is based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah and has been compiled by eminent Muslim scholars, jurists and representatives of Islamic movements and thought.1

Table 1. Muhammad: Human Rights and Duties


Qur'an and Sunnah
Human Rights and Duties


An individual must seek Allah as taught by Muhammad in the Qur'an and Sunnah.


Marriage is between a Muslim man and a woman who is either a Muslim or a woman of the Book, meaning a Jew or Christian. A Muslim woman cannot marry a non-Muslim man. The roles of the husband and wife are defined by Muhammad.


A husband and wife have the duty to nurture their children as taught by Muhammad.


Individuals have the duty to participate in associations as taught by Muhammad.


Individuals have the equal right to participate in a nation's affairs as taught by Muhammad.


Individuals have the equal right to work, so they can provide for their needs as taught by Muhammad.


Individuals have the equal right to protection under the law as taught by Muhammad.


An individual has the right to choose the religion of his choice, because the individual stands alone before Allah on the Last Day of Judgment as taught by Muhammad.

Allah: A Way of Life


From a Christian perspective, all natural human rights and duties are from Allah, and they are defined by creation, reason, and conscience. Worldwide humans have a direct responsibility to Allah, because everyone sees the order of creation, and they have a rational mind and a moral conscience that discerns between good and evil. They are not dependent upon prophetic revelation to know proper moral conduct. This is why Table 2 is titled, Allah: Human Rights and Duties, because Allah's will can be directly discerned by the mind and conscience on matters of human rights and duties.  As can been seen, there is no prophet (dark-green bar) blocking the knowledge of Allah's will on matters that can be naturally known by the human mind. The basic rights and duties of each person flow directly from Allah (dark-blue bar) to the individual and his rights and duties (light-blue section)

Likewise, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations affirms in the first article that human rights are based on reason, conscience, and our common human brotherhood, i.e., we all belong to the family of Adam and Eve. 

Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.2

The unique and proper role of a prophet is to convey truth that goes beyond what a human can discover without divine assistance. For example, the knowledge of heaven, salvation, hell, angels, and future events require the office of a prophet. Hence, the light-green bar designates the proper, but limited, role of a prophet. In summary, Christians believe that Allah is the Complete Way of Life

Table 2. Allah: Human Rights and Duties

(Creation, Reason, & Conscience)
Human Rights and Duties


It is an individual's primary responsibility to seek Allah according to his own conscience.  


Marriage is a covenant of love between a man and woman that is ordained by Allah for human happiness and progeny. It is a covenant according to nature that exists between a couple and Allah. 


A husband and wife have the right to nurture their children as they see their joint responsibility before Allah.  


Individuals have the equal right to participate in associations of their choice.


Individuals have the equal right to participate in a nation's affairs.


Individuals have the equal right to work, so they can provide for individual needs.


Individuals have the equal right to protection under the law.  


An individual has the right to choose the religion of his choice, because the individual stands alone before Allah on the Last Day of Judgment. 


Allah has sent prophets, apostles, and messengers to warn, encourage, and reveal truth that could not be discovered by human investigation and reason, such as salvation and future events. A true prophet's moral messages needs to correspond to creation, reason, and conscience. 

 Muhammad: Human Rights & Duties

As noted above from a Muslim's perspective, all human rights and duties were defined by Muhammad in the Qur'an and Sunnah. According to Muslim tradition, the angel Gabriel (Jibril) revealed to Muhammad the words of the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam. In addition, Muhammad's the life and behavior themselves were a revelation to be obeyed. The rules of conduct that are derived from his life and behavior are termed, the Sunnah. It means "a normative way of acting, conduct, practice, usage, rule, course, institution and behaviour."3  The Hadith is a written record of the Sunnah of Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan wrote, 

In fact hadith is the narration of the sayings, doings, and tacit approvals of the Prophet (peace be on him), while sunnah is the rule of law conveyed through the hadithHadith is a vehicle which conveys the sunnah of the Prophet.  Hence one hadith may contain many sunnahs.  Here sunnah means rule of law, practice, or model conduct of the Prophet (peace be on him), which is contained in a hadith.4

The Qur'an states that Muhammad is "a beautiful pattern (of conduct)."  As a result, Muslims believe that Muhammad is the ideal prototype of a perfect man, and Muslims look to his sayings and behavior for guidance in their day-to-day lives. Muslims believe that all hope in Allah and the Final day finds its answer in Muhammad. For a Muslim, Muhammad's glory and light are brighter far than Allah's light and glory that are displayed to reason and conscience by creation.

Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah. Sura Al-Ahzab 33:21 (Yusuf Ali's translation)

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا. سورة الأحزاب ٣٣‏:٢١

Seyyed Hossein Nasr explained this ayah with these words, 

The prophet of Islam is considered by Muslims to have been the most perfect of men, in fact the most noble and perfect of all of Allah's creation, ashraf al-makhluqat. Allah bestowed upon him all the virtues and all the perfections which the human state is capable of possessing. As the Noble Qur'an states, he did not acquire the state of prophethood by himself but was chosen by Allah; furthermore, all of the virtues became perfectly actualized in him. Therefore, he is seen by Muslims as the perfect model for human life to imitate. He is the perfect or universal man, al-insan al-kamil and the Quran itself refers to him as the example to be emulated in the verse, "Verily in the Messenger of Allah ye have a good example" (XXXIII:21).5

According to Muhammad, if a person wants to obey Allah, the person must obey Muhammad, because obeying him is the same thing as obeying Allah. Muhammad is on par with Allah. It is important to note that Muslim literature prefers to use Allah instead of Muhammad, even though they are  equally to be obeyed. As a term, Allah seems more authoritative than Muhammad, so Allah is more frequently used in their literature, because it carries more psychological impact. However, it is vital to remember that, when a Muslim claims that Allah has commanded something, it was really Muhammad who commanded it. 

He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah. Sura An-Nisa 4:80

مَّنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللّهَ.  سورة النساء  ٤ : ٨٠

In the Qur'an, Muhammad has total control over the minds and wills of Muslims. Because, if they don't submit in total faith to him and all of his decisions, they don't have real faith, and they will become fuel for the flames (al-Nar) of hell. So, Muslims must diligently study every minute aspect of Muhammad's human life to be confident they are following his perfect and beautiful example. A Muslim cannot think for himself on anything that Muhammad has expressed a definite opinion without facing the dangers of hell.

But no, by the Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against Thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction. Sura An-Nisa 4:65

فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىَ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُواْ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيمًا. سورة النساء ٤ : ٦٥

It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path. Sura Al-Ahzab 33:36. 

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا. سورة الأحزاب ٣٣ : ٣٦

Like a carpenter who patterns an idol according to the beauty of a man, so Muslims pattern their life and Shari'ah after a man, the man Muhammad. It is idolatry.

{Another} shapes wood, he extends a measuring line; he outlines it with red chalk. He works it with planes, and outlines it with a compass, and makes it like the form of a man, like the beauty of man, so that it may sit in a house. Isaiah 44:13 (NAS)

Finally, Sura Al-Maeda 5:50 condemns those who appeal to the judgments of the times prior to Muhammad. Effectively, Muhammad swept aside all prior jurisprudence, and he established himself as the sole source of  the knowledge of Allah's legal will for humanity. All prior judicial knowledge and experience were brushed aside and replaced with his own ideas of justice.  He asked, "Who can give better judgment than Allah?," meaning that he equated his judgments with the final judgments of Allah for the world until the Last Day.

Do they then seek after a judgment of (the days of) ignorance? But who, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than Allah? Sura Al-Maeda 5:50

أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللّهِ حُكْمًا لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ. سورة المائدة ٥ : ٥٠

In summary, according to Muslims, the Qur'an and Sunnah of Muhammad are the sole source of righteous guidance in this life.  Whatever Muhammad said or did regarding the duties of the individual, marriage, family, society, employment, government, and religion are now the duties of every man, woman and child on the face of the earth. All other religions and their respective laws and sacred texts have been abrogated, and Muhammad's system of life and religion alone has divine approval and blessing for today. This is why Islam should be more accurately termed, Muhammadanism, because Muhammad's sayings and life define Islam and the knowledge of the will of Allah.

Allah: Human Rights & Duties

As noted above, the Christian's perspective is that all the basic human rights and duties are directly from Allah, and they are defined by creation, reason, and conscience. This concept has important implications for the rights and duties of humanity. First of all, it means that each person is a responsible moral being with his own rights and duties, and these rights were not given at the behest or subject to the whims of a prophet. Secondly, this applies to everyone alive today as well as those who lived in past ages.  Thirdly, it is valid for all ethnic, racial, and religious groups the world over. Fourthly, a prophet cannot abrogate the natural creation and the rights and duties that flow from it. A prophet is never brighter than the witness of creation, reason, and conscience.


From Genesis to Revelation there are many references to God creating the universe. Since God is the Creator, all creatures owe their existence, purpose, and submission to their Creator alone. This submission to God is the most basic duty of a creature, including humankind. 

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Genesis 1:1 (NIV)
"You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they were created and have their being." Revelation 4:11 (NIV)
Submit yourselves, then, to God. James 4:7 (NIV)

Everyday, the wonders of creation witness to the power, wisdom, majesty, and knowledge of Almighty God, and this testimony shines to the ends of the world and into the thoughts of all people of every language. So, on the basis of creation alone, humans have knowledge of God and a duty to live according to this knowledge. King Dawud wrote, 

The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands.
Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge.
There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard.
Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world. In the heavens he has pitched a tent for the sun, Psalms 19:1-4 (NIV)

The existence of God is plainly seen from the creation as well as his eternal power and divine nature.  Holy Scriptures affirm that humans have no excuse to deny God's existence, power, and divine nature.  As a result, humans are morally responsible to live in reverence to God. Both the Jewish and Christian scriptures testify that creation instructs us about God.

since what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them.
For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities-- his eternal power and divine nature-- have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse. Romans 1:19-20 (NIV)


In the beginning, God created the first parents of all humans: Adam and Eve.  However, they were different from the other animals, because they were created in the image of God. They had an intelligent mind that could know God and know the significance of justice, fairness, holiness, mercy, equity, and love. Their rational mind is what corresponds to the image of God. The animals had bodily parts such as, feet, hearts, ears, stomachs, and eyes. But, they were not created with an intellectual mind that can look at the starry heavens and understand the power and wisdom of their Creator. Since animals were not created with an intellectual mind, they were not created in the image of God. 

So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. Genesis 1:27 (NIV)

All human beings are creatures made in the image of God, that is, every person has a God-given mind that can naturally know God's existence and his divine nature and will. Furthermore, all humans understand ideas of justice, fairness, and love. It is a natural feature of human nature to understand these things, and these concepts don't have to be taught by a prophet.  They are the very fabric of human nature with which Adam and Eve were created. 

From one man he made every nation of men, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he determined the times set for them and the exact places where they should live. Acts 17:26 (NIV)


Human beings have a moral sense of what is right and wrong. This sense is called the human conscience. It is not something with which animals are born, but it is possessed by all human beings. As far back in history as we can search, we can see human beings making ethical decisions about what is good or evil. In the book of Genesis we read that Adam and Eve ate the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. This story points out that human beings have a moral conscience with the knowledge of good and evil. 

"For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." Genesis 3:5 (NIV)

This moral sense of right and wrong is written upon each human heart.  Even if a person has not heard of the Mosaic law and the command, "You shall not murder" Exodus 20:13 (NIV), the person knows that murder is wrong because of the requirements of the law are written upon his heart. His conscience bears witness to the evil character of the deed. A person cannot escape the testimony of his own conscience. 

(Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law,
since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them.) Romans 2:14-15 (NIV)

Our personal behavior should not violate our moral sense of good and evil, because our moral conscience has been given to help us live an ethical life. In addition, we should conduct our personal affairs such that our behavior does not offend the moral conscience of others. Religion does not excuse us from "commending ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God."

Rather, we have renounced secret and shameful ways; we do not use deception, nor do we distort the word of God. On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God. 2 Corinthians 4:2 (NIV)
So I strive always to keep my conscience clear before God and man. Acts 24:16 (NIV)


The ancient Roman philosopher, Marcus Cicero (106-43 B.C.), stated beautifully the natural basis of human rights and duties and their universal and timeless application.  He wrote, 

True law is right reason in agreement with nature; it is of universal application, unchanging and everlasting; it summons to duty by its commands, and averts from wrongdoing by its prohibitions. And it does not lay its commands or prohibitions upon good men in vain, though neither have any effect on the wicked. It is a sin to try to alter this law, not is it allowable to attempt to repeal any part of it, and it is impossible to abolish it entirely. We cannot be freed from its obligations by senate or people, and we need not look outside ourselves for an expounder or interpreter of it. And there will not be different laws at Rome and at Athens, or different laws now and in the future, but one eternal and unchangeable law will be valid for all nations and all times, and there will be one master and ruler, this is God, over us all, for he is the author of this law, its promulgator, and its enforcing judge. Whoever is disobedient is fleeing from himself and denying his human nature, and by reason of this very fact he will suffer the worst penalties, even if he escapes what is commonly considered punishment.6

By contrast, Muslim believe that 'true law' must be a law that requires them to mimic the behavior of Muhammad and to obey his sayings. Whereas, Cicero wrote, "True law is right reason in agreement with nature; it is of universal application, unchanging and everlasting; it summons to duty by its commands, and averts from wrongdoing by its prohibitions."  Muslims discard Allah's creation and human nature and replace it with Muhammad. 

1400 Years Old

The Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights claims that Islam gave "an ideal code of human rights fourteen centuries ago." Muhammad claimed that his message was from God and that obedience to him was the same thing as obedience to God. There is an identity in obeying God and obeying Muhammad. However, it's important to keep in mind that Muhammad is the true source of Islamic human rights. If a Muslims were honest about the human source of Shari'ah, they might be willing to consider the divine source of true human rights. 

Islam gave to mankind an ideal code of human rights fourteen centuries ago. These rights aim at conferring honour and dignity on mankind and eliminating exploitation, oppression and injustice.
Human rights in Islam are firmly rooted in the belief that God, and God alone, is the Law Giver and the Source of all human rights. Due to their Divine origin, no ruler, government, assembly or authority can curtail or violate in any way the human rights conferred by God, nor can they be surrendered.7

While the Islamic code of human rights arrived fourteen centuries ago with Muhammad, the true source of human rights arrived with the creation of our first parents, Adam and Eve. The code was not written on separate pieces of palm leaves, parchments, and bones, but it was written on creation and in the hearts, minds, and consciences of every human being. The ideal code did not come to a prophet in a cave, but it came directly from God and his creative wisdom and power and was implanted into human nature. 


Christians believe that human beings are a unique creation of Allah who are endowed with reason and a moral sense of good and evil. This human endowment is shared by all human beings and is a gift of the Creator. As a result, all human beings are responsible to Allah to order their individual, marital, family, social, national, economic, and religious lives according to reason and good morals. Christians believe that Allah is the complete Way of Life

This Christian view contrasts sharply with the view of Muslims who believe that human rights and duties were defined by the sayings and life of Muhammad. Effectively, Muslims set aside Allah and the natural laws of creation, reason, and conscience and replace them with the life and sayings of Muhammad. As a result, Muslims are shackled with many of the ideas and superstitions of Muhammad and his seventh century Arabian culture. Muslims have made a man, Muhammad, the measure of all things instead of God.  In doing so, they have disregarded the wise words of Plato who correctly stated that God is the measure of all things. 

Athenian: What line of conduct, then, is dear to God and a following of him? There is but one, and it is summed up in one ancient rule, the rule that 'like'--when it is a thing of measure--'loves its like.' For things that have no measure can be loved neither by one another nor by those that have. Now it is God who is, for you and me, of a truth the 'measure of all things,' much more truly than, as they say, 'man.' So he who would be loved by such a being must himself become such to the utmost of his might, and so by this argument, he that is temperate among us is loved by God, for he is like God, whereas he that is not temperate is unlike God and at variance with him; so also it is with the unjust, and the same rule holds in all else.8


Human verse Divine Law

Muslims claim that Islamic law is a divine law while they claim that Christian believe in human law. Abdul Qader 'Oudah wrote,

The Islamic Shariah is different from the Human Law in these respects:—

(i) Ordinary law is the creation of man, while the Shariah is divine revelation.  Thus the two reflect the qualities of their respective makers.  As the ordinary law is the result of human efforts it is imperfect, apologetic weak and inadequate.  That is why it is constantly subject to change and modification—a process which we term as "evolution." As society develops and reaches a stage unexpected and unforeseen, so also does the customary law grows or assumes such forms as may not have been envisaged in advance.  In other words, the human law is imperfect in every respect and cannot attain perfection until man himself becomes perfect.  But the truth of the matter is that he can only trace his past to a certain extent and is incapable of knowing the future.

The Islamic Shariah, on the contrary, has been made by Allah himself and reflects the Maker's perfection, glory and the light of omniscience which covers, in a sweep, all the possibilities of both the infinite past and and infinite future. The Omniscient Being has made the Islamic Shariah in such a manner that it embraces all the affairs and problems of the present and the future. The Almighty Allah has ordinated that there shall be no modification of His law since no change of time or space or the vicissitudes of human circumstances necessitate any amendment there-in: 

"There is no changing in the words of Allah." (10:64)9

However, Mr. 'Oudah ignores completely the fact that the Shari'ah is based upon Muhammad, who was a human. So in actual matter of fact, Shari'ah law is a prototypical human law, since it was patterned after the sayings and life of a single human person, and we can point to the exact historical figure upon whom the Shari'ah was built. It was Muhammad who lived fourteen hundred years ago in the land of Arabia.  As is documented in great detail in hadithic literature, Muhammad's laws were molded and fashioned in the land and culture of ancient Arabia. So, it is no wonder that the Shari'ah laws are unsatisfactory for the modern world. They are a human legal system erected upon a dry bones of a man whose mortal remains are entombed in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

By contrast Christians believe that righteous law is based upon the testimony of creation, reason, and conscience. Clearly, creation, reason, and conscience were created by Allah. Since these were created by Allah, a nation's laws are most divine when they correlate to nature, reason, and the moral sense. And, the laws are most unrighteous when they violate nature, reason, and morality. 

Therefore, it seems self-evident that Islamic Shari'ah law is a human law, because it is based upon a single person, and his name is Muhammad.  Christian believe that righteous law must be based upon the principles discovered in nature, reason, and conscience which are gifts of Allah to the human race. 

Western versus Eastern Human Rights

Now, Muslims often complain that Middle Eastern and Asian Muslims are judged unfairly by Western standards of justice. Perhaps the complaint is justified in some cases. However, it is important to recognize that human nature, logical reasoning, and moral conscience are common to all humanity.  It is not an issue of Western verses Eastern laws. It is an issue of belonging to the human family. It is an issue of justice, equality, fairness, and righteousness for all peoples of the world. The very idea of a human caste system, such as the dhimmi caste system in Islam or the Hindu's multi-layered caste system, is discriminatory and violates Allah's order of creation. The Lord Jesus Christ said, 

So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12 (NIV)
Do to others as you would have them do to you. Luke 6:31 (NIV)

A person needs to ask himself, "How would I like to be treated?"  If you want people to treat you with justice, equality, righteousness, and fairness, then you must have laws that treat others with the same degree of fairness and freedom too. If you want the privilege to follow the teachings of Muhammad, then you must allow others the same privilege and freedom to follow their religion. If you want the freedom to propagate your religion, then you must allow others the same freedom to propagate their religion. Otherwise, you have no regard for fairness or equality, and you are no different from any other narrow-minded tyrant who uses religion for his own brand of bigotry. 

Divine Law

The divine and royal law is the law of love towards one's neighbor. 

Love does no harm to its neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. Rom 13:10 (NIV)
The entire law is summed up in a single command: "Love your neighbor as yourself." Galations 5:14 (NIV)
If you really keep the royal law found in Scripture, "Love your neighbor as yourself," you are doing right. James 2:8 (NIV)

1 Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights, Islamic Council, London, England, Sept. 9, 1981
2 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations, New York, NY, Dec. 12, 1948
3 Hasan, Ahmad, Sunnah as a Source of Fiqh. Islamic Studies 39:1 (2000) p. 3.
4 ibid., p. 10-11.
5 Nasr, S.H., A Young Muslim's Guide to the Modern World, Kazi Publications, Inc., Chicago Illinois, 1991, p. 15.
6 Marcus Tullius Cicero, Cicero in Twenty-Eight Volumes: XVI De Re Publica, De Legibus, in The Republic III(XXII), Trans, C. W. Keyes, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, 1988, p. 211.
7 Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights, Islamic Council, London, England, Sept. 9, 1981
8 Plato, Laws IV, The Collected Dialogues of Plato, including the Letters, Edited by Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns, Bollingen Series LXXI, 1961, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 715e, p. 1307.
9 'Oudah, Abdul Qader, Criminal Law of Islam: Volume 1, Translated by S. Zakir Aijaz, Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi, India, 1999 p. 15-16.

Last edited 08-30-2001